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What is a sole trader?

A sole trader works for himself and is the only company owner. Unlike a limited corporation, a sole trader has no shareholder, director, or partner liable for their debts. A sole trader is a self-employed person, all in all. He is running his business idea solely.

You have complete control over your assets and reap the rewards of all after-tax profits. This carries a risk but has potential rewards. It depends on how strong your business idea is.

A sole trader has what is known as “unlimited liability,” which means that if the firm goes bankrupt or is sued, you are personally responsible for the debt and must cover all associated costs.

Small firms that serve people and families most frequently operate as sole proprietorships. Photographers, plumbers, interior designers, makeup artists, and hairdressers are examples of professionals who often work alone or with relatively few coworkers.

How can you differentiate a sole trader from a self-employed one?

A sole trader is self-employed; however, not all independent contractors are sole traders. It all depends on your company’s organization.

You are a sole trader when you are self-employed and the only proprietor of your company. You are not a sole trader if you work for yourself but are also part of a partnership or manage a limited liability company.

Even though most contractors work alone and don’t have any employees, they run their businesses as limited companies, which means that even if they don’t have any employees, their firm is still a company.

Who needs to register as a sole trader?

If you make money from operating your personal business, you must register with HMRC as a sole trader. Even if your firm is modest, this applies if you made more than £1000 in the previous tax year working as a freelancer consultant or selling goods online.

As a sole trader, you must register if:

  • Over £1000 was made by your company during the most recent tax year.
  •  For tax reasons, you must demonstrate that you are self-employed.
  • You wish to contribute voluntarily to Class 2 National Insurance.

In the UK, anyone who is qualified for a National Insurance number can register as a sole trader. If you don’t already have one, you may apply for one from HMRC.

Benefits and drawbacks of being a sole trader

You make the rules when you are your employer. Everything you do, including when, how, and what you do, is entirely under your control.

More independence and flexibility are provided, enabling you to make rapid choices without seeking board or shareholder permission (helpful when working one-on-one with customers).

Other benefits of being a sole trader include:

Sole traders can be established quickly and have fewer legislative requirements.

You are not required to register your business name or submit any Companies House paperwork, including the yearly Confirmation Statement. Simply enrolling for self-assessment will let HMRC know you are self-employed and conducting business as a sole trader. This can be done online or by mail.

A sole trader’s accounting duty is simpler.

You are exempt from the exact accounting requirements of a limited corporation, which must submit yearly accounts that include balance sheets and corporate tax filings. All you have to do is transmit information about your profits with your self-assessment annual tax return and keep track of your invoices and costs. As a result, you will pay less for accounting services than a limited corporation.

Sole traders can keep profits.

Unlike limited firms, which must distribute earnings to shareholders, you may keep every dollar you make (after tax and deductions like wages if you employ anyone). All the assets utilized in the business are also your personal property.

Sole traders have the option to protect their financial data.

Since you are not compelled to send any information to Companies House, less information about you is accessible to the public. This might give you a competitive edge because your rivals can’t see how well (or terribly!).) you’re doing.

As they develop, sole traders may alter their opinions.

The transition from a sole proprietorship to a limited company is straightforward, but the opposite is more challenging. If you want to test the business waters and get a feel for it, starting as a sole trader allows you to switch to a limited company later if it is the better choice.


Working outside of a corporate framework has disadvantages. You bear full responsibility for major choices since you are the one who has to make them.

If a loss occurs in a sole trader business, you will bear it all. To cover the losses, you might even need to sell your house. Moreover, paying taxes is all your responsibility.

Due to difficulty determining whether to take time off, several sole traders struggle to maintain a healthy work-life balance. However, more significant drawbacks include:

A sole trader is personally liable (and unlimited liability)

The owners of sole traders are not recognized as independent legal entities – the most significant disadvantage of being a sole trader may be this. You are responsible for all company responsibilities and debts. You’ll have to use your assets to settle the debt if you can’t pay your business bills. Your house can be lost as a result.

Some customers find sole traders unattractive.

Clients may hesitate to cooperate with sole traders for various reasons, including perceived increased risk or lack of prestige. Research is vital before determining what kind of business to start because this depends on your sector and clientele. Firms may be cautious about hiring you if you are a freelancer or contractor because they don’t want to appear to be paying you as an employee for tax purposes.

Limitations on tax planning apply to sole traders.

Although you can deduct some company costs and assets from your taxes, limited firms often get additional tax breaks. For instance, limited corporations pay less than single traders when producing a good profit. Limited company owners who are employed can also get dividends from their businesses, which have a reduced tax rate and increase their take-home income.

One-person businesses run the danger of losing their company continuity.

If a sole trader is gravely injured or unwell, you are still responsible for carrying out existing contracts. Being unable to work might be distressing or lead to debt. It’s essential to consider these possibilities when establishing your company, plan to account for them, and, if necessary, obtain business insurance.

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Registering a sole trader business in the UK

It would help if you did the following while registering as a sole trader.

  • Speak with HMRC. Inform them that you want to register as a sole trader and will be filing your taxes as such.
  • Fill out the HMRC self-assessment registration form online or by mail.
  • Get your HMRC online account active. After you submit the registration form, HMRC will email you an activation code for your online account and a 10-digit Unique Taxpayer Reference.
  • Utilizing your newly created online account, finish filing your annual self-assessment tax returns.
  • Registering with Companies House is not required when registering as a sole trader.

How much does it cost to register a sole trader?

In the UK, there is no set fee to become a single trader; you may register for free with HMRC. However, the procedure might take some time, and you’ll need to be sure all the data you supply is accurate.

How much tax does a sole trader pay in the UK?

Knowing how much tax you must pay on your self-employment income is crucial whether you are already a sole trader or are considering becoming one.

Your tax burden is determined by your income and profit over a financial year, which begins on April 6 and ends on April 5 of the following year. When your income exceeds the tax-free personal allowance of £12,570 for the 2022–2023 tax year, which will remain unchanged until 2026, any profits are liable to tax.

Income Tax

You must pay income tax on all personal income received, such as business profits, property rental income, money from investments, wages from employment, or dividends received from a business. All of this must be subtracted from any allowable business costs before you file a tax return and pay the related tax to HMRC by the 31st of January each year.

Most of the time, sole traders must make POA payments toward the upcoming tax year. Payments on account are payments made in advance toward the tax bill for the forthcoming year and are predicated on generating the same amount of money/profit the following year as you did this year.

The advance payments are divided into two equal instalments, the first due on January 31 and the second due on July 31.

You’ll need to make a balancing payment, and if your payments on account exceed the tax owed when your tax return is assessed, HMRC will issue a refund.

For instance:

Your tax obligation for the years 21 and 22 in your first trading year is determined at £3,000.

By the end of January 2023, HMRC must receive payment in full.

You will also be required to make account payments for the next year of 22/23 since the tax obligation exceeds £1,000 in value.

The first POA (Payments on Account) of £1,500 for 22/23, or 50% of £3,000 in 21/22 tax, is due on January 31, 2023. The second POA of £1,500 for 22/23, or 50% of £3,000 in 21/22 tax, is due on July 31, 2023.

This is how the HMRC is assisting you in spreading out your tax payments and accelerating money collection. You won’t need to pay on account if you’ve previously paid over 80% of the tax owed or if your last Self-Assessment tax bill was under £1,000.

For the tax year 2022–2023, England and Wales’ income tax brackets and rates are as follows:

Income Tax in Scotland is a little bit different.

National Insurance

The National Insurance Contributions (NICs), which employees and self-employed people contribute, are used to finance public services, including the NHS and different government ministries. Additionally, they aid in establishing a person’s eligibility for benefits like the state pension. There are two NICs to consider if you operate as a sole trader without workers. When filing your self-assessment tax return or making a payment on account, you must include the following payments:

NICs for Class 2

If your profit exceeds £6,725, above the 2022/23 Small Profits Threshold, you must pay £3.15 per week (£163.80 annually) in Class 2 NICs.

NICs in Class 4

For profits exceeding £9,880 in 2022–2023, you must pay 10.25% Class 4 NICs on profits up to £50,270 and 3.25% on earnings above that amount.

Tax on Value Added (VAT)

Most items we purchase in the UK have VAT added to the price. You must register for VAT as a sole proprietor and begin charging your clients if your annual revenue as a business surpasses £85,000 during 12 months or if you anticipate it will be within 30 days. However, you can register anytime since being VAT-registered has several benefits.

When this requirement applies to your company, you must prepare, submit, and pay HMRC for quarterly VAT returns. Don’t worry; the idea is that the 20% VAT most firms pay has already been charged to and collected from their customers. As a result, in principle, paying VAT shouldn’t cause you to lose money significantly, as you can recover VAT levied on any of your expenses.

Bank account requirements for sole traders

It is not legally obligatory for sole traders to hold a separate bank account. You may use your bank account for your sole trader businesses since HMRC sees your personal and commercial revenue as the same.

It is strongly advised to keep everything separate, especially for small businesses, to avoid using corporate finances for personal expenses or vice versa.

Being a sole trader involves some personal financial risks.

Yes, the Possibility of personal accountability for business debts is the most significant danger for any sole trader. As a single proprietor, there is no separation between you and your firm, unlike limited businesses, which have separate legal identities for the directors.

More specifically, since you are a sole proprietor, your personal liability is unbounded, which implies that, in the worst situation, you may go bankrupt and lose your house. If the firm failed and could not fulfil its obligations, you would have to sell your assets to pay the creditors.

Choosing a name for your company

Sole traders must not:
  • Use the terms “limited,” “Ltd,” “limited liability partnership,” “LLP,” “public limited company,” or “plc” in their business names.
  • act impolitely

Your name cannot, without permission, contain a “sensitive” term or expression or imply a connection to local or governmental leaders.

The owner of a name or emblem previously used or registered as a trademark may file a lawsuit against you.

It is simpler to prevent other companies from utilizing your name or emblem if a trade mark is registered.


A sole trader, or single trader, operates independently and is responsible for all aspects of their business. While the structure offers advantages like flexibility and direct control, it also brings challenges, such as unlimited liability and the pressure of managing everything alone. A sole trader’s success hinges on balancing these factors with their unique skills and adaptability. Despite the challenges, this form of entrepreneurship remains an effective path for those seeking quick financial growth through diligent management and expertise.


Frequently Asked Questions

How long does it take to register as a sole trader?

Your UTR can be obtained from HMRC in as little as four to six weeks.

Can a sole trader business become a limited company?

Starting a new firm as a sole trader is a smart idea. As your revenues increase, though, you might be able to reduce your tax burden by converting to a limited company. This will also increase your borrowing capacity, boost your competitive credibility, and minimize your liabilities (improving your financial security).

However, you are not required to register as a limited business. Some people like operating as sole proprietors. If you believe you are prepared to proceed further, discuss this with your accountant. They’ll determine whether your business is financially sound enough to become a limited company and provide you with sound guidance on what to do next.

What accounts are sole traders required to keep?

Limited corporations are required to submit more accounts to HMRC than sole traders do. You must maintain a thorough record of all your company earnings and outlays to include in your tax return. Original bills and receipts are included.

Can a sole trader have a business name?

You can use your own name or choose a different business name for your company. Your name does not have to be registered.

On formal documents like letters and invoices, you must write your name and, if you have one, the name of your company.

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